Engineering methods are applied to increase our understanding of biological systems ranging in scale from molecules to cells to tissues to organs. Examples include applications of
(1) circuit models of cells to account for signal processing properties of sensory receptor cells and neurons,
(2) feedback models of organs to account for normal and pathological cardiac responses,
(3) molecular distributions of charge in tissues to account for mechanical properties of cartilage.
Subjects in this area highlight how fundamentals in EECS can be as important to understand biological systems as they have been to understand artificial electrical, electronic, and computational systems.